The Fraser Institute 2020 Report on the Annual Survey of Mining Companies shows Namibia suffering a drastic decline of 12.92 points on the Policy Perception Index, dropping 33 places globally, and falling from first place in 2019 to fifth position on the African continent, behind countries such as Botswana, Ghana, Guinea, and Mali. Investors expressed concerns over the availability of labour/skills, regulatory duplication and inconsistencies, and infrastructure. Challenges with VAT registrations and input VAT refunds for exploration companies were a so cited as hurting Namibia’s competitiveness. But the Chamber of Mines Namibia maintains that the survey was not representative of the whole mining industry and that had a higher number of responses been received, Namibia would have received higher scores.